Minggu, 24 Maret 2013

Various hormonal glands

Gland hormones can be divided into several types, namely:
1. thyroid
The layout of the thyroid gland is near the Adam's apple and a lot of the hormone thyroxine. When our bodies lack the hormone thyroxine, the body's growth will be slow or Javanese people say midget and if the excess hormone thyroxine will result in rapid growth exceeds normal growth or grow very large than normal big or rich Javanese saying aboh or giant elephant.

2. gonad
Generally the sex glands and hormones that can produce sex cells. While the male sex glands called testes to produce male sex cells and the hormone testosterone. For women sex glands such as the ovaries to produce eggs and hormones estrogen.

3. The pituitary gland
The layout of the pituitary gland in the brain is large and can produce hormones and growth hormones that can regulate the function of the thyroid, kidney and gonad function.

4. glands insulin
Location of insulin was found in lymph glands and the pancreas can produce insulin. While the function of insulin is to regulate sugar levels in the blood. If the human body is deprived of insulin, it could lead to a disease, especially diabetes or excess sugars.

5. Adrenal glands
Hormones that can be produced from the adrenal glands is adrenaline and hormones can change glycogen into glucose.

Human skeleton

Framework contained in our body is made up of several pieces of bone and serves to protect life and enable us to move freely in any direction according to what we want.

Framework is a notch muscles. While ligaments are the bones that have relationships with one joint with the other joints. To expedite the movement of the bones with the other, then the end of each bone must be lined with a tissue called cartilage and joints are lubricated by a special liquid.

Skeleton can be constructed by:
1. Cartilage. There is the young child or infant and the beginning of the whole bone. While cartilage was found in the nostrils, earlobes and joints.
2. Hard bone. Composed of 100%, which divided the 30% is a matter of life and 70% are dead substance. If the substance was disposed off, then that remains is a chewy substance alone and are part of life participated discarded, leaving only the bones are hard, dry and brittle. If more and more frequently used, then the bone will experience change and greater and stronger bones.

The skeleton can be grouped into several sections, which are:
1. Skull. Consists of: rear skull, upper jaw, forehead, crown, forehead, upper jaw, and so forth.
2. Bone loss. Divided into several sections, including the spine, chest, pelvis, ribs, shoulder bones.
3. Bones members. Have parts: arm bones, leg or foot bones.

Sabtu, 23 Maret 2013

Mastering yourself with the power of concentration

Generally people do not have sufficient capacity to control. Humans are less trained to master himself. emotions, desires, will, thoughts, actions and habits of regularity if the person does not have the body and the soul has not been adequately trained. When self-regulation has not been trained properly, emotions, desires and thoughts would act as they pleased. So generally, things would be a lot more harm than good. If allowed to continue, and not trained, will weaken the power of concentration. We would not be able to concentrate if we are not able to guide themselves. powers of concentration will not thrive until you are able to develop skills that will enable you to concentrate. You will be able to concentrate if you train your mind to be strong. If the mind is weak, it is very difficult to concentrate because in the minds of the weak strong desire impossible to form. What is a strong mind it? A strong mind is a mind that is able to focus on only one particular object. Similarly, the mind is not able to pull away from a certain thought. Someone who is able to focus his mind on only one object and get rid of things that are not supposed to, it means the person has a strong mind. Because the concentration is meant the power of the mind. The concentration of a strong mind will have a positive effect on the thoughts, words, and actions. People who are not able to control his mind will not be able to do and accomplish things big and mean. It will only waste the time of his life. If you continue to let your mind drifting aimlessly, you can not concentrate. The concentration of a strong mind will enable us to control and self-mastery. Therefore, the practice continues to control and master the thoughts, words and actions. Concentrate your efforts to control yourself so you are able to accomplish things that are important in your life. you to be a person of value in life.

Definition of cloud

The cloud point of water is gathered and hovered in the air high enough. Various kinds of clouds:
1. High clouds: there is at an altitude of 6 km to 12 km. The cloud is always composed of ice crystals, which include among others:
- Cirrus (Ci), which is finely structured fiber cloud shaped like a bird's feather. These clouds do not cause rain.
- Cirron status (Ci-St), a cloud that looks like a fine white netting covering the entire sky and flat so it looks bright. These clouds often cause halo (round circle) around the sun or moon. It usually occurs during the dry season.
- Cirro Cumulus (Ci-Cu), cloud disjointed and filled with ice crystals form a bunch of sheep and often cause shadows.

2. Medium clouds: there at an altitude of 3 to 6 km, which includes:
- Alto Cumullus (A-Cu), clouds of small but many, spherical rather thick, cloudy white to gray. These clouds and clustered close together.
- Alto stratus (A-St): This broad and thick clouds of gray.

3. Low clouds: there is at an altitude of less than 3 km, includes:
- Strato Cumulus (St-Cu): spherical clouds that often cover the entire sky, so it's like a wave in the ocean. Cloud layer is thin so it does not cause rain.
- Stratus (St): Low clouds were very spacious, high below 2000 m. Shaped like a wide layer of fog.
- Nimbo Stratus (Ni-St): irregular-shaped cloud, shaped edges ragged irregular. Very wide spread in the sky and caused the drizzle.

4. Vertical cloud: cloud that occurs because air rises, include:
- Cumulus, the lumpy clouds and cause rain.
- Cumulus Nimbus, which is a very thick clouds and cause rain accompanied by wind and storms.

Definition of biosphere

Biosphere comes from the word bio means living things and spheres which have meant layers. Thus, the biosphere is the layer dwelling beings. Biosphere covers plants (flora) and animals (fauna). Distribution of flora and fauna in the regions of the earth's surface to the other regions have different circumstances. The differences that affect the distribution of flora and fauna are:
1. climatic factors (climatic), such as temperature, rainfall, wind and humidity.
2. edatik factor (land), such as soil structure, soil texture, soil fertility, and soil type.
3. biotic (living beings), such as animals, plants and humans.
4. physiographic factors, such as landform and altitude.

Flora conservation efforts
The following measures can be taken to preserve the flora:
a. strict supervision, especially to forest destruction and illegal loggers
b. reforestation of the denuded forests
c. prohibit grazing forest destruction
d. guard against the fire
e. planting replacement trees after trees felled
f. prohibiting shifting cultivation
g. establish protected areas
h. implement selective and tailored to the needs.

Factors that cause extinction of fauna
The following are the factors that cause extinction fauna:
a. factor of death, resulting from predation, hunting, disease, starvation, accidents
b. welfare factors, related to the quantity and quality of the environment fauna ie food, water, and a place to live
c. human factors, human activities are affecting the fauna.

Safeguards fauna
The following are efforts that can be done to protect the fauna:
a. make the game laws that restrict the types of animals that may be hunted
b. provide suitable habitat for certain animals naturally in a wide area
c. breed animals that are endangered, and when it is released back into the woods a lot
d. providing food naturally.

Kamis, 21 Maret 2013

Adjustment and the adjustment process

Someone learned a lot of response and a wide range of responses or response system so that he can interact with their environment in an adaptive manner. Adaptation and adjustment are progressive processes. Individuals can adjust if he had studied the responses that allow him to interact with the environment so that he gets the satisfaction of the need to behave in a way that is acceptable to the community members. Individuals can adapt in certain situations with a variety of ways to satisfy their needs to successfully carry out its role demanded of him. This means that the individual is able to adjust.
In contrast, individuals who did not manage to fit in, is not able to interact with the environment in accordance with the demands of their environment and can not satisfy their needs.
Adjustment process contains the following elements:a. Individuals have studied the response of the system or have developed personalities.b. Environment, good interpersonal and socio-cultural system that has values, norms, expectations, rules, and specific demands.c. The process of interaction between the individual and the environment, in terms of a process of mutual influence between each other.d. Individuals behave in a way that can be accepted by the social environment or the community in which he resides.e. The satisfaction of individual needs, after carrying out the behavior.f. Individuals successfully perform the roles expected.
Leaders and implementers as well as other elements within an organization's workforce needs to have the ability to adjust to, especially at the time of entering the new institute, occupies a new position or field of work, and move to a new community. A successful leader is a leader who is able to adapt to the environmental organization, system of values, the acclaim and support from subordinates or group of employees, satisfying the needs of himself and those around him, and carry out the role and duties of leadership in accordance with the demands of the organization.
Among the many personnel in an organization, there may be one or more personnel who failed to fit in, so directly or indirectly an obstacle for him to carry out their roles and duties properly and successfully. To help such personnel, the leader needs to organize training programs and extension personnel, so in the end the question is able to work more productively.

The process of entry of Hindu-Buddhist in Indonesia

According to historian named van Leur and Wolters, trade relations between Indonesia and India, first developed than trade relations between Indonesia and China. Of trade relations, emerged several theories regarding the entry of Hindu-Buddhist culture to Indonesia.
The entry of BuddhismBroadcasting Buddhism in Indonesia earlier than Hinduism, which since the second century AD. In the spread, Buddhism recognize the mission of evangelism called Dharmadhuta. Evidence on the early entry of Buddhism to Indonesia is known from the discovery of a bronze Buddha statue in Jember, Sempaga (South Sulawesi), and Bukit Siguntang (South Sumatra). Nevertheless, the carrier is not known sculptures from South India to Indonesia.
The entry of HinduismThere are several theories advanced by historians theories Hinduism entry into Indonesia. These theories are as follows:a. Sudra theory, stating that the spread of Hinduism in Indonesia conducted by the Indian caste sudra, the lowest caste in caturwarna.b. Vaishya theory, stating that the Vaishya caste traders who settled in Indonesia much later spread the culture of India. This theory was put forward by N.J. Chrome.c. Knight theory, stating that the nobility India who introduced Hinduism. This opinion was expressed by F.D.K. Bosch.d. Brahmin theory, states that Hinduism spread to Indonesia by the Brahmins. Their arrival is an invitation to meet chiefs in Indonesia who are interested in Hinduism.e. Feedback theory, stating that Indonesia also has a role in the entry of Indian culture. The traders from Indonesia settled in India for some time and then came back with the culture of India and spread. This reverse flow theory proposed by van Leur.

Rabu, 20 Maret 2013

Density, distribution, and population growth

The number of inhabitants in a region different from other regions. There are many inhabited areas and there are sizeable. The population determines the level of population density. In densely populated areas generally plain. In the sparsely populated hilly region. Population density indicates the number of population per unit area.
In the vast territory the population was spread unevenly. Population distribution shows the presence of people living in the region. Areas densely clustered in certain areas. The houses are huddled showed densely populated.
The main factors that affect population distribution is as follows:a. The physical condition of the areaResidents choose to reside in areas favorable for life. Fertile and temperate regions chosen comfortable place to stay. Lowland valley region, and the mouth of the river is a fertile area and easy to get water so densely populated. Population easy to do activities such as farming. Conversely, a mountainous area sparsely populated areas. Residents difficult farming, traveling and doing daily activities.
b. The level of people's knowledgeResidents tried to use his knowledge to adapt to the environment. Previously, the lives of the highly dependent nature. However, the technology and equipment owned to adapt to a difficult environment. For example, local water shortages can be overcome by water from other areas using pipes. Marshy areas can be converted to agriculture by using drying technology.
The population growth rate of population show. Rapid population growth due to high birth rates and low death rates.
Factors that lead to high birth rates are as follows:a. Population's health condition is goodb. Adequate health facilitiesc. Child marriaged. Not doing the family planning programe. Wanting child-sex specificf. Labor requirementsg. The notion that a lot of kids a lot of luck.
Factors that lead to a low mortality rate is as follows:a. Population's health condition is goodb. A healthy environmentc. Adequate nutritious foodsd. Adequate health facilities.


Volcanism is a natural phenomenon associated with the release of magma to the surface of the earth through a hole called a crater pipe (diatrema). This event is accompanied by a powerful explosion resulting solid material thrown into the air. Eruption of material that builds up around the crater of the volcano crater forming bodies were sometimes reaching thousands of feet high.

Mount is a region towering up to a height of more than 620 meters higher than the surrounding area. Surface mount consists of long slopes, valleys, deep gorges and narrow-backed and high mountain regions are generally a cool temperate regions. In addition, the volcano formed by the tube that connects the magma in the bowels of the earth to the surface of the earth so that the magma reaches the Earth's surface. Materials that came in the form of liquid and molten lava outpouring of ash solid or gas.

Spewed lava and heavy fire in the event of an eruption, while continuous gas out through the crater during active volcano. In addition, the outpouring of lava and fire also took a compound containing sulfur (solfatara) and water vapor (fumaroles).

Magma activity is due to magma containing pressurized gas. The gas serves as a source of energy that forces surrounding rock. In the earth's crust, magma occupies a separate section called the magma chamber. The size of the magma chamber volume effect on the duration of volcanic activity.

The elements of map

Map that meets both standards, should have the following elements:1. Title mapThe title is written in the middle of the map above or other visible parts are still empty. The title of the map shows the content or type of map is described.
2. Scale mapThe scale of the map is the ratio of the distance on the map to the actual distance on the ground or on earth. Based on the shape, the scale can be divided into three, namely:a. Scale numbers (numeric), is a scale that shows the comparison of distances in the form of numbers. For example, a scale of 1: 500,000, meaning a distance of 1 cm on the map equals the distance 500 000 cm (5 km) in the field.b. Scale line (graphics), is a scale in the form of a straight line which is divided according to a certain size and is expressed in units or inches.c. Scale verbal (sentence), is a scale in the form of a sentence. Verbal scale is not commonly used. The scale is only used as an extra.
Based on the scale, the maps are distinguished as follows:a. Large-scale maps with a scale of 1: 5,000 to 1: 250,000. map is used to map the rapidly growing urban areas and known areas you need to know in detail.b. Medium scale map with a scale of 1: 250,000 to 1: 500,000. kinds of maps are often found and clear enough for most areas.c. Small-scale maps with a scale of 1: 500,000 to 1: 1,000,000. This map covers a very wide area, reaching several thousand square kilometers and can be used for regional planning.
3. Instructions direction (orientation)Instructions direction or orientation of the map is called the direction of the wind. The maps in Indonesia always indicates the north. This means that the north always at the top and the south has always been at the bottom.
4. LegendLegend contains a description of the symbols used in the maps, more maps is easy for the reader to understand the content of the map. Legend placed in an empty part, especially at the bottom left or bottom right on a map.
Type of symbol that is usually found on the map are as follows:a. symbol pointb. line symbolsc. area symbolsd. symbol color, for example:- Green color, is used to describe the low-lying- Yellow color, is used to describe the plateau- Black, used to describe the symbols and writing- Brown color, is used to describe the mountains and hills- Blue color, is used to describe water.

Minggu, 17 Maret 2013

Soil erosion, factors that cause landslides, landslides mark

Soil erosion is a type of ground motion. Landslide itself is a symptom of nature that occur in the vicinity of the mountains. Slope steepened slope of an area, the greater the possibility of a landslide. Erosion occurs when the top layer of earth and rocks detached from the main part of the mountain or hill. Basically most of the provinces in Indonesia is hilly or mountainous areas that make up slowly oblique. Kemiringannya land or slopes over 20 degrees generally have the potential to move or slide. But not always slope or sloping land potential for erosion.

Broadly speaking, the factors causing landslides are as follows:
1. Environmental factors
a. other geological conditions of bad rock, soil slope, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
b. namely climate at the time of high rainfall
c. namely topography of steep slopes.

2. Human factors
a. cutting in mining rock cliff on the slopes of a steep
b. in the county landfill slopes
c. deforestation in the wild on the slopes of district
d. his fish pond on the slopes
e. slopes of the drainage system in the area is not good
f. groundwater pumping and drying causing ground water levels fall
g. excessive loading of the building in the hills.

Landslide hazard mitigation efforts mean all efforts to minimize the occurrence of landslides due. Steps performed to suppress avalanche danger is divided into three types:
1. Early stage or level of preventive
Early stage in an effort to minimize the landslide disaster losses is as follows:
a. identify areas prone to and do mapping
b. prevention counseling and natural disaster by providing information about how and why landslides occur
c. monitoring areas prone to erosion
d. expansion planning early warning systems in disaster-prone areas
e. avoid residing or erecting a building on the edge of steep river valleys
f. avoid doing excavation on the hillside district that would interfere with the stability of steep slopes to easily slide
g. avoid making new fields and pools on a steep slope for the water used will affect the physical properties of the slopes. Slopes become flabby and loosen up the soil easily move
h. ground motion disaster disseminate information through various media so that people know.

2. Hazard levels
Work to be done when a landslide disaster-affected areas such as the following:
a. Host rescue stricken accident
b. formation handling center
c. evacuation of victims to a safer place
d. stance kitchen, health posts, and the provision of clean water
e. outbreaks of disease prevention berjangkitnya
f. evaluation, consultation, and counseling

3. Level of post-disaster
After a landslide disaster occurred, it does not mean the problem is complete, but there are stages to be done to reduce the amount of loss, namely:
a. empowering restore function to normal protected forests
b. evaluate and tighten the EIA study on vital areas that could potentially cause a disaster
c. land preparation relocating residents lived in the disaster area, and living along the riverbanks
d. normalization of the disaster area
e. rehabilitation facilities and infrastructure supporting community living permanently struck by natural disasters
f. maintain cooperation among regional forum in disaster.

Scientists categorize landslide disaster as one of the most catastrophic geology may be approximated. There are three signs to monitor the possibility of landslides, namely:
a. cracks in the land in the form of concentric (centered) as a circle or parallel and width of a few centimeters to several meters long. Crack shape and size is a parameter measuring the wider public more time nearby landslide
b. sightings collapse sections of land in large quantities
c. landslide occurrence in a place a sign of landslide area further.

scale of map

The scale of the map is the comparison between distance on the map with the actual distance on the ground. Actual distance on the earth's surface called horizontal or horizontal distance. The larger the scale of a map will provide an overview of the nature or detail visibility in a narrow region. As for small-scale maps will download images or visibility of a general nature on a vast area.

At a certain scale maps we can calculate the actual distance between two objects in the field and vice versa. To determine the distance between two points on a certain scale maps need to know actual distance on the ground.

Measuring distances on the map there are two kinds of ways, namely as follows:
a. Straight distance. Straight distance on the map represents the distance between two cities that are measured in air. To measure the distance can use the ruler or a ruler. Measurement result is multiplied by the scale of the map.
b. Mileage. Mileage in the field not be a straight line, but follows a long road that connects with them. To measure the distance can use yarn and a ruler. Long thread result measured with a ruler multiplied by the scale. This method is used to measure the length of the river, around the lake, and other objects that shaped curve.

To calculate the area of ​​a district to know the form of territory. Form region can be divided into two, namely:
1. form of regular region (square). Wide area can be calculated by multiplying the length and width. That calculation approach permission to use paper parcels (blocks millimeters)
2. form of irregular regions. Wide area can be calculated in two ways, namely:
a. using a measurement tool called planimeter
b. manufacturing parcels on the map using paper compartmentalized (millimeter blocks).

Sabtu, 16 Maret 2013


Map is a tool that is used to study the Earth's surface. Through the map you can see a variety of landscapes and cultures that exist on earth. If there is currently no map, people will find it difficult to know where he lived alone and other places on the earth's surface. Maps, can expand their knowledge and human civilization.

Map is a picture of the whole or part of the surface of the earth painted on a flat surface with a certain ratio. Map contains the information, which means the map is used to convey a message from the maker of the map to the readers or users. The message was delivered by using symbolic language to make it more easily understood. Cartography is the science and art of learning about mapping, including mapping studies, a variety of maps, storage, and preservation of maps.

Various language symbols marked on the map, such as title, scale, coordinate system, greatly help users map to understand the information contained in the map.

Map has some benefits as follows:
1. shows the location of an object or a specific place
2. provide a general picture of the earth's surface that includes shape, area, and the distance between one place to another
3. shows various landscapes in the region, such as relief, mountains, deserts, rivers, soil, etc.
4. shows the appearance of socio-cultural form of the number and distribution, such as the number and distribution of agricultural land, settlement distribution, distribution of flora and fauna, urban, and others.

That glimpse of the benefits of writing about maps and map. I think that is enough to give you an understanding of the definition of the map and the benefit of the map. Hopefully useful.


Agricultural activity is an activity cultivate arable land in order to make a profit. Processing of agricultural land to bring a variety of land uses that characterize the type of agricultural activity.

The activities included in the agricultural sector are as follows.
a. Agricultural crops and horticulture
Agricultural crops and horticultural plants have traits that are cultivated food crops or staple food crops. Cultivated agricultural land is relatively narrow.
The form of this type of agricultural land use, among others, irrigated, rainfed, tides, swampy, and moor.

b. Plantation
Plantations are usually planted farmland chocolate, cloves, coconut, palm oil, cotton, rubber, coffee, pepper, sugar, tea, and tobacco. Plantation is divided into two types, namely plantation crops and annual plantation. Plantation crops once planted food crops, such as tobacco and sugar cane crops. Plantations planted perennials that live for many years, such as rubber, coffee, tea, coconut, and palm oil.

c. Livestock
Livestock is livestock raising business benefits taken for various purposes. The characteristics of farms in Indonesia, among others are still using simple technology and the number of cattle commercialized relatively few.
Farm business in Indonesia can be classified into three types, namely large animal farms, small animals, and birds.

d. Fishery
Fishing is a business maintenance, breeding, arrest or capture, and utilization of fish and biota (plants and animals) water. Based on where pengusahaannya, fisheries can be divided into land and sea fisheries.

e. Forestry
The forest is an ecosystem unity in the form of landscape biological resources, dominated by trees. Broadly divided into three forests in the region, the forests in the summer, in temperate climates, and in cold weather. Forest products are widely used include wood, rattan, and various types of game animals.

Human behavior in working to make ends meet

Human beings are creatures of the economy with the intellect and thoughts not only serves to spend means of satisfying needs, but also physically able to change shape and increase the number and value of the goods in order to make it more useful for life. However, in the event he needs the help of other people. That's because no one is perfect and people can meet all their needs with the abilities they possess.

Social human beings have the meaning that humans are made up of individuals can not live alone and depend on others. In daily life, each individual always interact or relate to other individuals. Relationships are naturally, instinctively, feelings, and habits will encourage each individual to do the same work. In order for these impulses can realize human behavior that work together in meeting their needs in harmony, there must be a concern of every human being on the harmonious relationship between the function of human beings as social and economic beings are moral.

A concern about the harmonious relationship between human beings as a function of social and economic beings, are as follows:
1. developed a mutual respect for the rights and obligations of each in working together
2. always try to maintain and nurture self-esteem of each party in cooperation
3. develop an attitude and work together in building a common goal without putting aside the prevailing norms
4. knowledge sharing and knowledge for the future progress
5. apply attitude mutual help in performing daily activities.

Keep in mind also, the difference in which every human being is also the human factor can not be separated from the surrounding community. The difference shows the ability of human behavior in different also cooperate. Usually the difference in cooperative behavior relationships are based on the intent and purpose they want, whether mutually beneficial cooperation, cooperation for the common good, or the cooperation of mutual respect and not overbearing.

Relics, the Hindu-Buddhist

Kingdoms of Hindu-Buddhist becorak ever successful in the development of Hinduism-Buddhism, leaving some relics that so far we can still see. Relics in the history of the life of a source of governments Hindu-Buddhist in Indonesia. Here are a few examples of these relics.

1. Yupa
Government of historical sources derived from seven Kutai inscriptions carved on stone pillars called Yupa. Yupa name is taken from the inscription on the inscriptions. Chance Yupa written in V century BC by using letters Pallawa with Sanskrit language. Yupa-Yupa was made on the orders of King Mulawarman and explain the following matters.
a. Mulawarman genealogy as a king in the kingdom of Kutai once famed King Mulawarman glory.
b. Mulawarman gift to Brahmin.

2. Inscription
Inscription is a source of history is often referred to by historians or archaeologists to open the story that happened in the history of the kingdoms in Indonesia. Some inscriptions are quite important for the history of Indonesia, among others Ciaruteun (Tarumanegara), Canggal (Ancient Mataram), Start Malurung (Singasari), Kedukan Hill (Sriwijaya), and Bulak (Majapahit).

3. Literature
Kingdoms of Hindu-Buddhist-oriented literature's many left. Literary works in Indonesia can be grouped according to his time as follows.
a. Ancient Mataram Age: Ramayana and Mahabharata.
b. Majapahit era: Negarakertagama, Sutasoma, Arjunawiwaha, Pararaton, and Candidate Coal.
c. Kediri Age: Kresnayana, Smaradahana, Bharatayuda, and Gatotkacasraya.

4. Temple
The temples are found in Indonesia basically exist acculturation. The foundation of the temple is the result of the culture of Indonesia from the megalithic age, that berundak punden building. Punden berundak got Hindu-Buddhist influence to be around a temple.

In India temple was built to worship the gods. However, in Indonesia as well as built for the worship of the deity, the temple also serves as a place of worship to the spirits of ancestors. In developing temple, Indonesian artists using only theoretical policies listed in the book which is the book of guidance Silpasastra sculpture and building. Indonesia race just take elements of Indian culture as a basis. The result depends on the creativity of the Indonesian people themselves. therefore, it is found in many temples Indonesia Indonesian specialties. Temples, among others, Borobudur, Prambanan, Gedong Sanga, Sambisari, Mendut, Kalasan, and Panataran.

Jumat, 15 Maret 2013

Definition of production, consumption and distribution

Production is an activity that creates, processes, seek care, produce goods and services or attempt to raise an object to make it more useful for human needs. The person or entity that processes, create, and produce goods or services referred to as a manufacturer.
Examples of production:
a. extractive activities
b. agricultural activities
c. industrial activities
d. mining activities
e. service activity.

Consumption is an activity to use, wear, and spending for goods and services or in other words an activity or spending reduces the usefulness of goods and services in order to make ends meet. Persons or entities who use the goods and services referred to as consumers.
Examples of consumption:
a. activities of eating, drinking, dressing, and driving
b. agricultural activities: the use of fertilizer, pesticide drugs
c. patients using the services of a doctor.
Items that can be directly used for subsistence referred to as consumer goods. Such goods can be divided into two kinds:
1. items that are only used once sold out
2. items that can be used multiple times.

Distribution is the activity of distributing manufactured goods from the producer of the goods (producers) to a user of goods (consumer) by way of sale and purchase. The person or entity in charge of distributing goods and services from producers to consumers is referred to as a distributor.
The objective of the distribution:
a. disseminate and commercialize equity production to consumers
b. to maintain the viability of production
c. for business improvement, development, and expansion of production.
Task distributor focused on marketing activities include the following items:
1. The principal tasks
- Sale and purchase
- Transport
- Store
- At risk.
2. Additional Duties
- Select
- Packing or repacking
- Provide information services.

The three activities have linkages and dependencies. Production activities will not run properly without distribution activities. Distribution activities may not exist if no goods are produced and no consumption of goods. Consumption activities may not exist if there are no goods and no one to distribute it.

Definition of the principle of economy

Human needs are numerous, diverse, ongoing, and is not limited. In fact, the tool needs in the form of goods and services is very limited. To make ends meet, people have to be very clever economic action by choosing alternative economic measures, ie measures to determine the choice of different types and a wide variety of goods which need to be prioritized and which can be postponed.

Economic action and alternative actions can be performed by anyone else either a manufacturer, trader or distribution agencies, and consumers. Every economic action must be done with careful calculation, mature, and not sloppy. That is, the action taken must be rational, be done with careful thought, mature, and reasonable. Appropriate action called the action adhering to the principle of economy.

The economic principle that actions taken in economic activities by adhering to the principle of trying to take the results as much as possible with the smallest sacrifice.

Based on the definition above, there are two things to note in the economic principles are as follows:
a. With a little sacrifice to achieve specific results
b. With certain sacrifices in order to achieve maximum results.

If someone does not guided by economic activity economic principles, that is a waste.

The purpose of economic principles are always used as a handle on the economic action is:
a. Obtaining maximum benefit
b. Utilizing the tools, skills, capital and certain sacrifices owned
c. Avoid losses and minimize the risk of loss
d. Avoid waste and act economically.

Understanding the rule of law

Legal norms are rules made by the state or the tools and equipment can be imposed by force of power tools the state (police, prosecutors, judges).

The characteristics of the rule of law:
a. The existence of the order and or restrictions.
b. Command or prohibition, and it should be followed by everyone without exception.

From the definition and characteristics of legal norms, we can conclude the elements of the rule of law as follows:
a. The existence of rules on social behavior in human life.
b. The rules are made by official agencies.
c. Rules were coercive.
d. Strict sanctions and force.

Grouping of legal norms
a. In terms of the relationship set
1. public law: the relation between the state and citizens (HTN, Htun, Criminal Law)
2. private law: regulating the relations between citizens (Civil and Commercial Law).

b. In terms of the content of the rules
1. material law: containing rules on an act and the punishment or consequences. Example: Criminal Law, Civil Code
2. formal law: containing the rules on how the application of material law. Example: Code of Criminal Procedure, Civil Kuha

c. In terms of the scope of application
1. national law: apply within the territorial boundaries of a country. Example: Civil Law, Constitutional Law, etc
2. international law: force is not limited by territorial boundaries of a particular country. Example: Private International Law

d. In terms of the entry into force
1. constitutum law (positive law). The current law, for certain people in a certain area. Constitutum law (positive law) there are legal experts who called it a "rule of law"
2. constituendum law. The law is expected to apply to the future
3. rights law (natural law). The law applies everywhere, at all times and to all nations of the world.

The purpose of law
Some opinions about the purpose of the law:
a. According Geny: law aims to achieve justice (ethical theory)
b. According to Jeremy Bentham: The law guarantees the maximum happiness in human life
c. According to DR. L.J. Apeldoorn: The law aims to regulate human life in a peaceful society
d. According to Mr. Van Kant: laws aimed at safeguarding the interests of every human being that those interests can not be bothered.

Thus, the law basically aims to achieve harmony between the order, peace, and justice (peace).

Definition of environment

The environment is everything that is located around the organism. The neighborhood consists of all inanimate objects and living beings that are all around the organism. Everything that exists in the environment can be used by humans to make ends meet because of the environment has a carrying capacity. In fulfillment of the necessities of life, human beings sometimes exceed the carrying capacity of the environment. As a result, the balance can be disrupted.

The scope includes environmental factors biotic, abiotic and factors caused by human interaction with the environment that includes social, economic, and cultural. In the interaction is sometimes caused no negative effects. Human activities that have a negative impact on the environment, among others cause pollution, contamination of both soil, water, air and sound. Pollution can be prevented and reduced. Pollution certainly occur that can be made is to reduce the impact of pollution that can be avoided. Because the impact of environmental pollution is more harmful to human survival.

Some understanding of the environment are as follows:
a. Environment are all things and conditions that exist in the space that we occupy and affect living things, including human life (Prof. Dr. Emil Salim).
b. In the Law No.23 of 1997 concerning the Principles of Environmental Management Article 1 paragraph (1), stated that the environment is a unity with all things space, power, state, and living things including human beings and their behavior affecting the livelihoods and welfare of continuity humans and other creatures.
c. The environment is all the objects and conditions that exist in the space that we occupy that affect our lives (Prof. Dr. Otto Soemarwoto).

According to environmental experts, it appeared that sense it was very spacious environment and human factors involved as actors who have great responsibility to the environment is preserved in the earth's surface.

Kamis, 14 Maret 2013

Definition of cities and urban land use

The experts define the city in accordance with the scientific point of view, respectively. Definition according Bintarto city is as follows. City as a whole network of human life which is characterized by high population density and socioeconomic strata characterized by heterogeneous and coraknya materialistic. Urban community consisting of natives and immigrants. Urban community is very heterogeneous, both in terms of livelihood, religion, customs, and culture.

According Bintarto, the city has the physical and social characteristics.
1. Physical characteristics of the city
a. The presence of economic means such as market or supermarket. Based on the ability to serve residents, the city shopping center divided into three types, namely neighborhood center (7500-20000 people), community center (20000-100000 people), and the regional center (over 100,000 people).
b. There is adequate parking
c. There is a place of recreation and sport
d. There is a square
e. The existence of government buildings.

2. Social characteristics of the city
a. heterogeneous society
b. Individualistic and materialistic
c. Livelihoods nonagraris
d. The style of life is gesselschaft (kinship began to fade)
e. The existence of social inequalities between rich and poor segments of society
f. Religious norms are not so strict
g. More rational view of life
h. The existence of spatial strategy, the separation of complex society or social group explicitly.

Compared with rural areas, land use more complex areas of the city. This is caused by several factors.
1. diversity of livelihood city
2. development of the city as the center of activities, such as the center of government, industrial centers, and educational center
3. completeness of facilities and infrastructure to encourage the emergence of new activities resulted in the emergence of new land uses.

Definition of cooperative

The term comes from the English cooperative, Cooperation. Term cooperation derived from two words: co operation which means together and that means business. So, literally cooperation (which is then frozen into the Indonesian language as cooperatives) implies the joint venture.

Under Law no. 25 year 1992 on cooperatives (as successor Law. 12th 1967 on cooperative subjects Indonesia), a cooperative is a business entity consisting of the person or a person or legal entity with the bases cooperative activities based on the principle of cooperation as well as economic movement based on the principle of family.

From the definition of cooperatives according to Law no. 25 In 1992, it can be explained as follows:
a. Cooperative as a business entity, meaning that cooperatives can manage the various business units that aim to make a profit in order to increase of net income (SHU).
b. Cooperative with the individual is the primary cooperatives.
c. Cooperative with cooperative is a legal entity such as a cooperative center secondary cooperatives composed of primary cooperatives, cooperative joint-member co-operatives center, while parent-member cooperative of cooperatives combined.
d. Composed of a person or legal entity cooperatives, also means that the cooperative is not pools of capital such as CV, firm, or PT. While both aim to make a profit, but the cooperative must also prioritize services and interest of the members.
e. Economic movement of capital means that cooperatives are the people who berekonomi weak to gather themselves and make joint efforts to keep up with their strong berekonomi.
f. The principle of joint enterprise means that kinship was forged by a sense of understanding, mutual aid among anggotan the umbrella organization that led the board.

Definition of villages and rural land use

As we have seen, the village has a structure of agrarian economy. Agriculture means farming life is. This means that the dominant land use in rural areas is associated with agriculture and supporters. Spatial pattern of the village in general simple. Components of the human, natural resources, science, and human needs affect the growth patterns of land use in rural areas. Based on the dominant livelihoods, village grouped into fishing villages, rice village, farming villages, rural farm, rural farms, handicraft villages (small industries), large industrial village, and village services and trade.

From the classification of the village we could see land use and livelihoods that were dominant at each type of village. In general, land use in the village divided into two functions, social functions, and economic functions. Social function for settlement and economic functions for economic activities such as farming and animal husbandry.

According to Prof. R. Bintarto, village or embodies the unity of geography, social, economic, political, cultural and contained in an area in the relationship and mutual influence with other regions. An area can be said to be a village where geography, social, economic, political, and cultural similarities have.

Soerjono Soekanto proposed community-owned village characteristics as follows:
1. village life very closely with nature
2. the lives of the farmers rely heavily on the
3. structure of the agrarian economy
4. among members of the village community has a close familial ties
5. relatively slow social development and social control are determined by the moral law and informal
6. religious norms and traditions are still strong.

Based on the definition and characteristics of the various villages, village life has agrarian structure.

The definition of political culture

Political culture is political values ​​espoused by a group of people, believed to be the nation or state for guidance in carrying out the activities of the state. Some opinions on the definition of political culture:
- Samuel Beer, political culture is the values ​​and beliefs emotional attitudes about how government should be implemented and what the government should do
- Almond and Verba, political culture is an attitude typical citizen orientations toward the political system and the diversity of its parts, and attitudes toward the role of citizens in the system
- Rusadi Sumintapura, political culture is nothing but a pattern of individual behavior and orientation to political life lived by the members of a political system.

These types of political culture that developed in Indonesian society
1. Parochial political culture, where individuals in the community hold less political activity, not even aware of the national political system
2. The subject political culture, in which individuals have been oriented towards the political system, he passively obey government officials and law, but did not participate in the formation of the national political system input and involve themselves in politics
3. Participants political culture, where individuals oriented structure and process of formation of the national political system input, they are involved in articulation, demands and formation decisions.

The role of the political culture of the participants
Political participation is an activity of citizens acting as individuals is to influence decision-making by the government. participation can be individual or collective, organized or spontaneous, steady or sporadic, peacefully or by force. Legal or illegal, effective or ineffective.

Forms of political participation that there are two kinds of conventional and non-conventional.
1. Conventional political participation
- Voting in elections
- Political discussion
- Campaign
- Establish and join interest groups
- Individual communication with political or administrative.

2. Unconventional political participation
- Filing of a petition
- Demonstrate
- Confrontation
- Strike
- Acts of political violence against property, vandalism, bombings, arson
- Acts of political violence against humans, kidnapping, assassinations, guerrilla warfare or revolution.

Rabu, 13 Maret 2013

The influence of geography on people

Indonesia's geographical conditions affect the lives of its inhabitants. Geographical conditions that affect the lives of residents in the form of geographical location, the climate, the landscape, and so on.

Indonesia is in the tropics. The tropical climate is considered as the most ideal climate for life. Therefore, there is no noticeable difference in air temperature in every season. Winter is owned dry season and rainy season. It can be seen from the intensity of solar radiation received during the year and relatively high rainfall. This gives the effect of climatic conditions on agricultural activities, farming, fishing, and other activities conducted by residents. The existence of a tropical climate which is owned by Indonesia can benefit the economy.

Landscape in Indonesia diverse. Forms of natural landscape, which include plains, plateaus, mountains, rivers, lakes, and seas. The existence of these landscapes have a positive influence on the people living in each of these stretch.

1. Lowland is an area on the earth whose existence is most desirable to be a place of human habitation. Lowlands in Indonesia is commonly used as an ideal residential place. In lowland areas all activities of life easier, such as housing, livelihood, transportation, and so on.
2. Highlands in Indonesia is widely used for activities associated with plantations. This area has a cooler temperature thus suitable for plantation.
3. Indonesia's mountains are divided into two categories, namely active and dead. In the area around the mountain usually has fertile soil results from volcanism. The usual activities of the Indonesian population in mountain areas are activities associated with farming and other activities, such as mining, tourism, and so on.
4. Rivers in Indonesia for the benefit of the activity surrounding the river is long and wide. Streams are used for everyday purposes, such as transportation, irrigation, fisheries, sports, household goods, and trade.
5. Lake in Indonesia, either artificial or natural is widely used as a source of irrigation, fisheries, rain water collection, and so on.
6. Sea in Indonesia wider than the plains. The sea was used for a variety of activities that the course aims to be profitable. The activities carried out, which include fisheries, marine aquaculture, as well as existing mining offshore.

Air Pollution

Although not visible to the naked eye, the air pollutants threaten our life and other living creatures. Air pollution causes cancer and other serious health effects, cause smog and acid rain, ozone layer protection reduces power in the upper atmosphere, and the potential to contribute to global climate change.

Air pollution generated by burning fossil fuels is not perfect, such as the burning of oil, coal, gasoline, and wood. Gaseous pollutants in the air comes from human activities or natural disasters. Gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NO), acid sulfide (H2S), lead and chloro fluoro carbon (CFC). Other sources of air pollution may come from radioactive radiation, such as nuclear. Air pollution is expressed by ppm (part per million), which means the number of cm3 per m3 of air pollutants.

Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless, poisonous, and is the result of incomplete combustion. Increased concentrations of carbon monoxide can result in reduced ability of blood to carry oxygen to body tissues. People who contaminated CO will suffer oxygen deficiency in the body tissues when blood hemoglobin containing 5% CO, hemoglobin has a holding capacity (affinity) high to carbon monoxide (CO), 200 times the power compared to oxygen binding. In the body of smokers, the levels of CO in the blood hemoglobin found more than 10%.

Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Burning fossil fuels, such as oil, natural gas and coal in meeting human needs for energy. Human activity scale domestic, industrial and agriculture showed an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the air. Increased CO2 in the atmosphere causes the Earth's temperature rise. The symptoms are known as the greenhouse effect.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Sulfur dioxide is released into the air during combustion of fossil fuels and metal melting. Increasing the concentration of sulfur in the atmosphere can cause health problems in humans (bronchitis), pneumonia, and heart failure, occurs when acid rain reacts with sulfuric acid clouds produce, decrease soil pH and iron perkaratan.

Nitrogen oxide (NO)
Nitrogen oxides produced from motor vehicle exhaust, high concentrations in the atmosphere can cause irritation to the eyes and lungs, as well as contribute to acid rain.

Acid sulfide (H2S)
Acid sulfide gas is toxic, easy existence is known because it has a bad odor (smells like rotten eggs). Destructive paints containing lead (Pb). Many sulfide acid produced in the decay of organic waste, volcanoes, can also be produced from the burning of oil and coal.

Lead can be found in air, water, and food we eat. Lead poisoning can occur when lead accumulates in the body over a long period. In high concentrations of lead can cause the body to lose control of the arms, legs, cramps, coma and death. Smokers usually contain a lot of lead in their bodies absorb lead as nicotine through the lungs.

Cloro Fluoro Carbon (CFC)
Cloro fluoro carbon compounds or known as Freon, widely used in liquid cooling (air conditioning), refrigerators (refrigerators), and tools spray (spray). CFC is volatile and difficult to react. After reaching the stratosphere CFCs absorb light and decomposes into chlorine atoms (Cl)-free. Chlorine atom is a catalyst in the decomposition reaction of ozone into oxygen.

Selasa, 12 Maret 2013

noise pollution

Noise pollution from the noise of motor vehicles, airplanes, factories, radio or tape recorder. Sounds that exceed thresholds cause noise pollution, such as the usual blather = 40 dB; those debates fuss or = 80 dB; jet = 150 dB.

Various kinds of contamination by pollutants, such as:
a. Chemical contamination: radioactive substances, metals (Ca, Mg, Ba, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Hg, Pb, As, Se), inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, detergents and oils.
b. Pollution biology: the form of microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Entamoeba coli and Salmonella thyposa).
c. Physical pollution: in the form of cans, bottles, plastic, rubber and glass.

According to WHO, the level of pollution is based on contaminant levels and time (duration) contacts can be divided into:
a. Pollution began to cause irritation (interference) light on the five senses and the body, and has caused damage to other ecosystems, such as motor vehicle exhaust gases that cause eye pain.
b. Pollution which has been disturbing reactions physiology and causes chronic pain, such as pollution of Hg (mercury) in Minamata Japan that cause cancer and birth defects.
c. Pollution levels of polluting substances such magnitude causing disruption, illness and death in the environment, such as nuclear pollution.

Consequences caused by pollution include:
a. Disruption of life or living organisms.
b. Changes in ecosystems or ecosystem imbalance.
c. Ecological changes.
d. The population explosion (detonation pest and eutrophication).
e. Killing predators is particularly useful organisms.
f. Death of ancient organisms (plankton, fish and birds).
g. Cause disruption, illness, birth defects (cancer, disability, and the mutation of cells) and death.
h. Decline in biodiversity and environmental quality.

Senin, 04 Maret 2013

Peran tari dan perkembangan tari daerah

Seni tari mempunyai peranan yang sama dengan seni-seni lainnya, yaitu:
1)    Tari sebagai media ekspresi
2)    Tari sebagai media berpikir kreatif
3)    Tari sebagai media mengembangkan bakat
4)    Tari sebagai media komunikasi.

Perkembangan tari daerah
Sejarah perkembangan tari daerah sulit ditelusuri, karena kurangnya dokumen. Bentuk dokumen biasanya berupa rekaman iringan musik, rekaman gerak secara utuh.
Perkembangan tari dibagi menjadi tiga:
1.    Zaman masyarakat primitif
Tari sudah ada pada zaman tersebut untuk upacara yang bersifat magis dan sakral, tarian masih sederhana
-    Tarian meniru gerakan manusia (mimitis)
-    Tarian meniru gerakan alam dan binatang (imitatif).

2.    Zaman masyarakat feodal
Pada zaman tersebut tari berfungsi sebagai hiburan atau tontonan, saat itu sudah diatur oleh kerajaan dengan tingkat-tingkat birokrasinya.

3.    Zaman masyarakat modern
Pada zaman modern penyajian tari semakin kompleks, ditandai dengan:
-    Tari sebagai sarana berprestasi
-    Ciptaan tari yang kreatif
-    Memperbarui tari (kreasi baru)
-    Banyak lomba atau festival.

Tokoh-tokoh tari daerah
1.    I Wayan Dibia (Bali)
-    Tari Jaran Teji
-    Tari Manuk Rawa

2.    Tjetje Sumantri (Jawa Barat)
Tokoh tari karseus
-    Tari Sulintang
-    Tari Sekar Putri
-    Tari Kandagar
-    Tari Lenyepan

3.    Wiwik Widiastuti (Jakarta)
-    Tari Ngarojeng
-    Tari Topeng
-    Tari Ronggeng Blantek

4.    Gugum Gumbira (Jawa Barat)
-    Tari Ketuk Tilu
-    Tari Serat Saliro
-    Tari Jaipongan

5.    Bagong Kusudiarjo (pelukis dan penari asal Yogyakarta)
-    Tari Tani
-    Tari Keris
-    Tari Wira Pertiwi
-    Tari Reog

6.    S. Maridi (Surakarta)
-    Tari Merak Subal
-    Tari Bondan Tani
-    Tari Eko Prawira
-    Tari Pejuang.

Minggu, 03 Maret 2013

Mengaransir lagu

Seseorang yang mempunyai ide atau gagasan dalam membuat karya seni musik perlu mempunyai kemampuan tentang olah vokal, pengetahuan musik, cara memainkan, cara memegang, punya bakat serta keberanian dalam berkarya. Salah satu karya musik adalah mengaransir lagu. Yang dimaksud dengan mengaransir lagu adalah memberi hiasan, menambahkan teks, iringan dan irama agar menjadi lebih indah dan artistik.

Ada dua macam teknik untuk mengaransir lagu, yaitu:
1.    secara tertulis, yaitu penambahan berupa notasi secara lengkap sampai pada bagian terkecil
2.    secara tidak tertulis, yaitu memberi hiasan lagu secara spontan secara pribadi, bebas dan bersifat sesaat.

Media mengaransir lagu:
1.    naskah lagu asli
2.    imajinasi
3.    kreativitas
4.    bakat
5.    pengetahuan musik
6.    pengetahuan sifat suara manusia
7.    alat musik.

Persiapan pertunjukan musik
Sebelum pelaksanaan pertunjukan atau pementasan musik tradisional maupun nontradisional perlu adanya persiapan-persiapan, antara lain:
1.    pembentukan panitia
2.    perumusan tujuan
3.    penentuan bidang tugas yang menangani
4.    menentukan biaya
5.    menentukan waktu pelaksanaan
6.    menetapkan materi (menyeleksi)
7.    merencanakan sarana dan prasarana
8.    mengevaluasi pelaksanaan.

Pertunjukan musik di sekolah
Dalam pelaksanaan pertunjukan musik di sekolah hendaknya berpedoman sebagai berikut:
1.    macam seni yang dipentaskan
2.    jumlah waktu yang digunakan tiap materi
3.    menyeleksi atau menentukan jenis seni.

Agar pelaksanaan pementasan sukses ada tiga kunci sukses, yaitu:
1.    kekompakan panitia
2.    pemilihan materi yang tepat
3.    penyusunan acara yang memadai.

Soal pilihan ganda. Pilih jawaban yang paling benar!

1.    Tujuan mengaransir lagu adalah...
a.    agar lagu tinggi
b.    agar lagu indah
c.    agar lagu rendah
d.    disesuaikan dengan alat musik
e.    agar lagu menjadi seimbang.

2.    Lagu Serumpun Padi dikarang oleh...
a.    A.E. Winata
b.    W.R. Supratman
c.    C. Simanjuntak
d.    Ismail M.Z.
e.    H. Mutahar.

3.    Lagu Serumpun Padi termasuk lagu...
a.    tradisional
b.    daerah
c.    daerah Maluku
d.    nontradisional
e.    perjuangan.

4.    Panitia yang menangani surat menyurat, membuat surat undangan adalah...
a.    bendahara
b.    seksi konsumsi
c.    sekretaris
d.    ketua
e.    seksi keamanan.

5.    Berikut ini merupakan lagu tradisional, kecuali...
a.    Kambanglah Bungo
b.    Apuse
c.    O Inani Keke
d.    Suwe Ora Jamu
e.    Garuda Pancasila.

6.    Sarana pertunjukan adalah...
a.    sound system, panggung
b.    gambar
c.    gamelan
d.    gitar
e.    lagu.

7.    Persiapan paling awal dalam pelaksanaan pertunjukan adalah...
a.    mengevaluasi
b.    pembentukan panitia
c.    menentukan biaya
d.    menentukan waktu
e.    perumusan tujuan.

Sabtu, 02 Maret 2013

Jenis-jenis tari

Jenis tari menurut garapan
a.    Tari tradisional, adalah tari yang bertumpu dan berpijak kuat pada tradisi suatu bangsa, suku atau kelompok masyarakat tertentu.
Tari tradisional dibedakan menjadi dua, yaitu:
1)    Tari adat. Contoh: tari tayub
2)    Tari klasik. Tari ini mempunyai nilai seni tinggi dan sebagian besar berkembang di kalangan istana. Contoh: tari srikandi.

b.    Tari kreasi baru, adalah tari yang dalam penataan berdasarkan pada pola yang sudah ada. Tari ini dibagi menjadi dua jenis, yaitu:
1)    Tari modern. Pengungkapan bebas baik penata maupun penarinya bebas berekspresi. Contoh: tari oleg tampulilingan
2)    Tari kontemporer. Tari kreasi yang berkembang pada masa kini.

2. Jenis tari menurut koreografi (penyusunan dan bentuk penyajian)
Jenis tari ini dibagi menjadi:
a.    Tari tunggal, yaitu tari yang dibawakan hanya oleh seorang penari. Contoh: tari panji
b.    Tari berpasangan, yaitu tari yang dibawakan oleh dua orang atau lebih dari sepasang. Contoh: tari roro mendut
c.    Tari kelompok atau massal, yaitu tarian yang dibawakan oleh sejumlah besar penari. Contoh: tari lenso
d.    Drama tari, yaitu tarian yang dibawakan dalam bentuk cerita yang terdiri atas beberapa adegan. Contoh: ulayang topeng.

3. Jenis tari menurut temanya
Jenis tari ini dibagi menjadi tiga yaitu:
a.    Tari pantomim, yaitu tarian yang meniru gerak alam, binatang, dan kehidupan manusia. Contoh: tari kupu-kupu
b.    Tari erotik, yaitu tarian yang berisi tentang percintaan. Contoh: tari gambyong
c.    Tari heroik atau kepahlawanan, yaitu tari yang berlatarbelakang berbentuk penderitaan atau perang. Contoh: tari tati sanghyang.

4. Jenis tari menurut fungsinya
a. Tarian sakral, yaitu tarian yang dianggap keramat, berkaitan dengan adat, kepercayaan dan keagamaan. Contoh: tari reko tenda
b. Tarian profan, yaitu jenis tarian yang berkaitan dengan masyarakat. Tarian ini dibagi menjadi dua:
1) Tari pergaulan atau hiburan. Contoh: tari bumbang
2) Tari pertunjukan atau tontonan. Contoh: tari pendet.

5. Jenis tari menurut bentuk geraknya
a. Tari representasional, yaitu tari yang menggambarkan dengan jelas dan mudah dimengerti. Contoh: tari tani
b. Tari nonrepresentasional, yaitu tari yang melukiskan secara simbolis dan penuh berisi gerak-gerak non wantah. Contoh: tari gonrang bulo.